Saturday, May 23, 2020

Effects of Sleep Deprivation on the Human Metabolome - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1145 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2019/07/29 Category Health Essay Level High school Topics: Sleep Deprivation Essay Did you like this example? The negative effects of sleep deprivation on brain activity and performance in cognitive tasks have been studied for generations. However, loss of sleep also has a significant impact on the manifestation of various diseases and metabolic disorders (obesity, diabetes) and cardiovascular disease. This is why for this assignment I have picked a paper that focuses on the effect of acute sleep deprivation on metabolomic profiles of patients (Davies et. al. 2014). The study used untargeted and targeted liquid chromatography (LC)/MS metabolomics to examine the effect of acute sleep deprivation on plasma metabolite rhythms. Characterization of plasma metabolites has revealed that lipid and acylcarnitine levels were significantly increased during acute sleep deprivation. Overall, 27 metabolites (tryptophan, serotonin, taurine, 8 acylcarnitines, 13 glycerophospholipids, and 3 sphingolipids) were increased after 24 hours of wakefulness. The levels of all metabolites changed during the 24 h wake/sleep cycle and clear daily rhythms were observed in most cases. Moreover, these rhythms were less apparent after 24 hours of wakefulness, which speaks to the significance of sleep for metabolic processes. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Effects of Sleep Deprivation on the Human Metabolome" essay for you Create order The significance of this study is enhanced by the fact that this is the first study focused on characterization of the 24 h rhythms of metabolic processes during the wake/sleep cycle and the changes occuring during the wakefulness period. There have been previous studies which used transcriptomic data to show that rhythmic gene expression may be affected by sleep deprivation or sleep restriction. However, metabolic profiling studies are best used for the purpose of characterising changes in specific molecular phenotypes associated with sleep deprivation (rather than inferring the changes in the metabolome from the transcriptome). Participants For the purpose of this study, twelve healthy young males were selected and monitored in carefully controlled laboratory conditions. The controlled variables included environmental light, sleep, meals, and posture during a 24-h wake/sleep cycle, followed by 24 h of wakefulness. Method The present study uses liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to ascertain the concentrations of plasma metabolites and link the changes in these concentration to the wake/sleep cycle rhythms. As suggested in the name, LC-MS combines the physical separation of molecules using liquid chromatography with the mass analysis capabilities of mass spectrometry (MS). The coupling of the two technologies provides higher accuracy in identification of structural identity of the individual components with high molecular specificity and detection sensitivity. In the first step (liquid chromatography) solubilized compounds are passed through a column packed with a stationary phase. The needed molecules in the mobile phase (which have the affinity for the stationary phase) get stuck on the solid stationary phase, while other molecules pass through the column freely. This effectively separates out the needed compounds based on their weight and affinity. LC is usually used the separate large non-volatile molecules such as proteins. However, the accuracy of this separation is not high enough for some purposes (for example for identifying isomers). This is where the next step, mass spectrometry, comes in. The sample passes into the vacuum chamber of the mass spectrometer. In simple terms, a mass spectrum measures the masses of molecules within a sample. Mass spectrometry allows to provide structural identity the the individual components of the product that has already been filtered using LC. There is also a modification of LC, which is called HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography). The idea behind this method is using a higher pressure ranging from 50-350 bar to separate out the molecules. Findings An unexpected result of this study is that in comparison with the number of ions and metabolites showing time-of-day rhythms (basically significant changes in expression of these metabolites during the day), fewer ions/metabolites were significantly changed when comparing the normal wake/sleep cycle to the 24 h during sleep deprivation (only 27 metabolites out of 171 were significantly different between the sleep and sleep-deprivation periods). All of these metabolites were increased during the sleep deprivation phase of the experiment, so it is possible that sleep has an inhibitory effect on synthesis of these metabolites. One of the metabolites which has shown increased levels after a 24 h wakefulness period is serotonin. This is an important finding because serotonin is known to be involved in both sleep cycle regulation and depression. Low levels of serotonin and reduced serotonergic neurotransmission are strongly associated with major depressive disorder, so if sleep deprivation over a short period of time (24 h) has shown to increase serotonin levels, this might provide a new avenue of clinical research. The amino acid tryptophan, which is vital for the formation of serotonin and melatonin, has shown significantly increased levels during acute sleep deprivation. This is in line with previous studies, which have indicated that tryptophan is an effective cure for major depressive disorder. It may be possible that the antidepressive effect of acute sleep deprivation is linked to the increased circulating levels of tryptophan, serotonin, taurine, and melatonin, and this subject deserves further investigation. Limitations The protocol described in the study allows identification of only metabolites that show increase or decrease in levels after a short period of time (less than 24 h) and do not show the changes in levels which occur over longer periods of sleep deprivation (longer than 24 h) or during repeated sleep deprivation (chronic partial sleep deprivation). Future applications Sleep deprivation has been previously shown to have an antidepressant effect. In line with this, the authors observed increased levels if serotonin, tryptophan and taurine after 24 hours of wakefulness. Therefore, the results of this study may have potential application in diagnostics and treatment of major depressive disorder, and perhaps even a series of related conditions, such as depressive disorders (seasonal affective disorder, bipolar disorder, psychotic depression, postpartum depression). In general, the metabolomics approach presented in the paper is a step toward understanding the metabolic pathways involved in regulation of the sleep/wake cycle. Determination of the impact of factors such as sleep on the metabolome could lead to future metabolic profiling-based studies aimed at identification of biomarkers of disease and drug effects. Conclusion The study has presented a n implementation of a method for identification of plasma metabolites that were significantly altered during acute sleep deprivation. It has been shown that 27 metabolites (mainly lipids and acylcarnitines, serotonin, tryptophan, and taurine) were increased during sleep deprivation. This study has provided me with some insight into why I might be able to not sleep for short periods of time, such as a 24h period investigated in the study. I myself do not know anyone who tried treatment of major depressive disorder using sleep deprivation, and the fact the people I do know that have it have told me that during the acute phase of MDD they tend to fall asleep for long periods of time and in generally sleep no less than 12 hours. It may be possible that this is in fact directly link to the cause for their disorder, and it is possible that the method suggested in this paper would help them.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

qualitative and quantitative research methods - 1823 Words

Psychological Research Methods: Exploring Qualitative and Quantitative Research In psychology, answers to our questions are not as succinct as in other types of sciences, and the findings essentially depend upon the underlying epistemology used. This essay seeks to define and examine the fields of qualitative and quantitative research. It will address the different epistemologies and methodologies of each paradigm, and aim to give you a brief overview of the two main research methods underlying scientific knowledge. Qualitative research is often only defined in contrast to Quantitative research; That is, it does not involve statistics, nor does it depend on the level of objectivity that characterises the†¦show more content†¦Ponterotto (2005) further states that the aim of quantitative research is the prediction, and control of variables that can be expressed as mathematical formulas to determine functional relationships. These differing ontological approaches bring to pass differing methodological approaches. Methodology refers to the processes and procedures of the research. Research methods used include observation, interviews, focus groups, surveys, case studies, questionnaires and analysis of text (Ponterotto, 2005, p.132). Observational research is non-experimental research where a researcher observes ongoing behaviour. It can be unstructured, semi-structured, structured, participant or non-participant (Wellington Szczerbinski, 2007, p.80). Some limitations to this type of research are language and cultural barriers as well as the risk of observer bias, with one of the advantages being that the researcher gains access to information they normally wouldn’t have. Observation is typically used in qualitative research, but can be used in quantitative research prior to designing questionnaires (Wellington Szczerbinski, 2007, p.80). As with observation, interviews and focus groups can be structured, semi-structured and unstructured, and can use photographs, notes, videos and tape recordings to improve data quality. Interviewing allows the researcher to guide andShow MoreRelatedQualitative Quantitative Research Methods1047 Words   |  5 PagesQualitative amp; Quantitative Research Methods PSY 326 Dr. Willow Aureala March 29, 2011 Qualitative amp; Quantitative Research Methods There are two types of research methods: qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative research methods are complex meaningful analyses characterized by processes and meanings that are not measured in terms of mathematical measurements. Quantitative research however, relies and builds on mathematical procedures and methods, such as frequency, quality, amountRead MoreQualitative And Quantitative Research Methods936 Words   |  4 PagesQualitative and quantitative research methods are two alternative applications for research methods. Both are very different in how data is collected, what data is collected, and how data is measured. Both of these research methods are utilized amongst the major areas of psychology and the social sciences. This paper will provide a brief description of qualitative and quantitative methods, provide the differences between the two approaches along with the terminology used for both; I will alsoRead MoreQualitative And Quantitative Research Methods1285 Wor ds   |  6 Pages Qualitative and Quantitative Research Ravi Teja Mora Dr. Jimi Peters Research Methods Stratford University â€Æ' Qualitative and Quantitative Research Introduction There has been a widespread of debate in recent years regarding the quantitative and qualitative research methods, wether one or the other has to be emerged as superior. Although there have been so many theories and conclusions, this paper intends to discuss on the similarities and differences between the qualitative and quantitative researchRead MoreQuantitative And Qualitative Research Methods Essay1218 Words   |  5 Pagesindividuals are confused about or not aware of the differences between quantitative and qualitative research methods. Some think those terms can be used interchangeably. Describe the key features (up to 5) that distinguish quantitative research from qualitative research. Provide examples to demonstrate your main points. Firstly, qualitative and quantitative research methods are used for different purposes. Quantitative methods try to explain and make predictions, confirm and validate an existingRead MoreQuantitative And Qualitative Research Methods Essay1850 Words   |  8 Pages3.2 Research Methods â€Å"Quantitative and Qualitative† were the two principal approaches in psychological research currently (Bavelas, 1998). Quantitative research is concerned with applying statistical approaches to test hypotheses. Statistical methods are to consider as the analysis of data, it normally concerned with â€Å"probabilistic model† as a background. (Sibson, 1999), the prominent characteristic of probabilistic model is as the analysis of data was collected, which is considered about â€Å"mean,Read MoreQuantitative And Qualitative Research Methods1694 Words   |  7 PagesIn this paper, I will outline quantitative and qualitative research methods and provide illustrations in the context of some social issues, which will hopefully offer insight into how each method is properly applied. Social issues around the world are very broad and diverse. They are usually made up of issues or concerns which directly or indirectly affect a person or a certain group of a society and are considered to be problems, controversies or both and are related to moral values, thereforeRead MoreQuantitative And Qualitative Research Methods871 Words   |  4 Pagessociology, researchers can use a different range of research methods to acquire new data. The various forms of research methods include surveys, ethnomethodology, experiments and documentary research. A common distinction is often made in sociology between quantitative and qualitative research methods. Quantitative methods intend to measure social phenomena by using mathematical methods and statistical analysis. On the other hand, qualitative methods mean to collect rich, detailed data, allowing forRead MoreResearch On Quantitative And Qualitative Methods2146 Words   |  9 Pages Regina Merriweather 5/19/2016 Question #1- Research (Program Outcomes 3 and 5) Part A: Quantitative and qualitative methods differ from one another as to their research design elements as listed below: †¢ Research methods purposes; †¢ Types of sampling; †¢ Data collection procedures; †¢ Data analysis techniques; and †¢ Conclusions that can be drawn from data analysis. Compare and contrast quantitative and qualitative methods on each of the elements listed. Please use scholarly, academicRead MoreQuantitative And Qualitative Methods Of Research Essay899 Words   |  4 Pages Quantitative versus qualitative (Lichtman, M. 2006) It is true that most of the management in the business world go for mixed methodologies in order to attain comprehensive and accurate findings of the research. Having said that there are pros and cons of both the methods that are taken into account by the management in order to achieve set goals and overcome hindrances in the business. Qualitative method of research is a speedy process that provides fresh and inventive results with in- depth analysisRead MoreQuantitative And Qualitative Research Methods1039 Words   |  5 PagesThis research project followed a multipronged approach combining both quantitative and qualitative research methods. After addressing the sample size and exclusions, the second section of Part I examines the strengths and shortcomings of the qualitative research methods, including the interviews and the on-site observations of fresh evidence matters. Finally, I hope to demonstrate why it was necessary to turn to the source of the case la w to mine the raw data to sustain my working hypotheses.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Support Individuals with Specific Communication Needs Free Essays

Assignment 303 Principles of diversity, equality and inclusion in adult social care settings Assignment composition Assignment overview In this assignment you will consider best practice in promoting diversity, equality and inclusion which does not discriminate against others. You will look at relevant legislation, codes of practice and regulations governing adult social care and consider the consequences for a variety of people if these are not followed. You are asked to consider your own attitudes and beliefs and how these may impact on how you treat people and to reflect on your own practice. We will write a custom essay sample on Support Individuals with Specific Communication Needs or any similar topic only for you Order Now Tasks There are three tasks to this assignment. A Short answer questions B Leaflet C Reflective account This is a summary of the evidence required for the unit. Task Evidence Learning outcomes covered A Short answer questions 1. 1, 1. 2, 3. 1 B Leaflet 1. 3 2. 1, 2. 2 3. 2, 3. 3 C Reflective account 2. 3, 2. 4, 2. 5 Question Booklet Task A Short answer questions Ai Using the table below, explain in your own words what each term means. Give one example from care practice to illustrate your explanations. (8 marks) |Explanation |Example | |Diversity | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Equality | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Inclusion | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Discrimination | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Aii For each of the following people/groups of people, describe two different possible effects of discrimination. (16 marks) An individual | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Their families | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Wider society | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Those who discriminate | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Aiii Using the table below, identify three ways of challenging discrimination, and describe how each will promote change. (9 marks) Way of challenging |How this will promote change? | |discrimination | | |1. | | | | | | | | | | | |2. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |3. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Task B Leaflet Bi Your work setting is running an induction course for new social care workers in an adult social care setting. Create a leaflet which can be used to support this course. The leaflet must include the following: a) A description of the legislation and codes of practice relating to diversity, equality, inclusion and discrimination. b) An explanation of the possible consequences for individuals, social care workers and others if the legislation and codes of practice are not followed. c) A description of how inclusive practice can promote equality and support diversity. d) An explanation of how to support others to promote diversity, equality and inclusion. Bii Give two examples of how you could raise awareness of diversity, equality and inclusion. 1. 2. Task C Reflective account Ci Write a reflective account describing: †¢ How your personal preferences, attitudes, heritage and beliefs might impact on working practice. †¢ How to ensure that your own practice is inclusive and respects the beliefs, culture, values and preferences of individuals. Suggested word count: 500 – 700 words Cii Write a brief account that describes examples of inclusive practice. Suggested word count: 150 – 200 words Ciii Write a brief account that describes practice which excludes the individual and is discriminatory. Suggested word count: 150 – 200 words How to cite Support Individuals with Specific Communication Needs, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Sake Of Easiness Understanding Calculation â€Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Sake Of Easiness Understanding Calculation? Answer: Introduction Life cycle costing (LCC) is the cost associate with a project or product over the life of its use[1]. Net present value (NPV) is the estimation of some speculation over the timeframe. NPV gives data with respect to the estimation of cash after some time, so it is also called time value of money. In current case, we shall discuss the LCC NPV for buying options (financing / own cash) available for a new car. In this report we shall understand the above discussed factors using the buying options of a new car. The buying options which shall be evaluated are the loan from a reputable car financing institution and the Using own funds and shall see which option is more profitable or advisable. All the required assumptions as per the ground conditions and the latest available information are used to calculate the same. The spreadsheet attached with the report shall show the calculation in detailed. Assumptions I selected the car Hyundai Elantra (1591 CC) for my family and own use at 81,999[2] Singapore Dollar (SGD) as base rate. The total value of the car shall be shown in the spreadsheet where all other cost heads are calculated to derive at the total cost of car. There are two options of getting the finance for buying car: Option 1: using loan from reputable financial institution that provides for car, like Standard Chartered Bank which provides the lowest rate of interest at around 2.68%[3]. In this case the down payment is required to be done for obtaining the balance amount as loan from financial institution. So let the down payment be 50,000 SGD and the balance shall be taken from bank as loan. Option 2: the second portion is using the own finance and spend the money already available. The total cost which is required to be spent to buy the car shall be done in spreadsheet. The maintenance cost for the car is zero for the first year due to the policy of the company to provide free maintenance for year 1 and after that the maintenance is required to be done at own cost only and company shall not bear any cost, all the labor and material cost shall be bared by the buyer. List of costs In this section, we shall discuss regarding the expected expenditures which we are required to do for purchasing a new car in Singapore. The probable head of the cost of a car are[4] shown below: Base rate of the car: the rate which is actually being charged by the company and the cost which adds to the balance sheet of Hyundai to calculate the profit and loss sheet at the end of each cycle. The base rate as provided in the official website of a dealer for the Hyundai Elantra was 81,999 SGD. Certificate of Entitlement (COE): it is the cost of getting a license to drive the car on road for around 10 years period. It has some range of cost; the cost depends on the volume of engine or engine capacity and the horse power of the engine. For the selected car, the value is around SGD 36,000 (generally it is considered in the car rate, but in this case we shall show it as head to add more items) Road Tax: the tax given to the government for the maintenance of the roads is fixed for 10 years of tenure from the date car is purchased. The fixed rate of road tax is 7440 SGD. COE and PARF Rebate: These returns are introduced by the government to have a check on the environmental conditions and always motivate the owners to scrap the vehicle within 10 years of time to get this rebate. We shall neglect this rate for the calculation sake, as we dont know the time of usage. Auto Insurance: it is the insurance we do by transferring the risk to other third party. The risks are like death, damage, injury, theft, fire and medical cost from any probable accident. Even though the rate of car insurance depends on the present value of car and accordingly the premium of the insurance also decreases. But without getting into the reduced insurance factor, we are considering a fixed 13,000 SGD expenditure for the insurance once for next 10 years. Total on road cost: the new car Hyundai Elantra can be bought by incurring all above costs as discussed. Generally all the cost of the car on road can be calculated by adding up all the heads the base rate, COE and Insurance. The value obtained by adding the above items is 138,439 SGD. Total Car Loan Value: this head shall be applicable in case of the loan and not used in case the total finance arrangement is done by own. The bank considered for the case is Standard Chartered Bank with rate of interest 2.68%. The loan amount depends on the amount of down payment we can do by using own fund. The more we do the down payment the less will be the interest amount. So, in this case we considered the down payment is done for 50,000 SGD. Maintenance Cost: the maintenance cost is expected to be 1000 SGD from the 2nd year on wards, the policy of Hyundai is providing free maintenance for the 1st year. Sources for all items The sources from where few of the cost back-ups are developed as follows: The cost of loan from the Standard Chartered Bank @ 2.68% The rate of the car (Hyundai Elantra) is obtained for the below source: Now the, discount rate of the banks at Singapore is: Treatment of car resale The resale value of the car depends on the depreciation rate of car applicable in the country. The depreciation rate can be calculated as[5]: Annual Depreciation = (Total Cost of Hyundai Elantra Sale Value of Hyundai Elantra) / Number of Years in Service The resale value of a car in Singapore mainly depends on the make of the car, engine capacity of the car, type of vehicle, COE and the registration cost[6]. So the resale value of the car shall also take in to consideration the depreciation rate. The depreciation rate per year = (138439 SGD 0) / 10 = 13844 SGD After considering the factors affecting it, the resale value of Hyundai Elantra after 5 years shall be 1,38,439 SGD 5x13,844 = 69,219 SGD Use of NPV process The NPV (Net Present Value) is the distinction of the present estimation of the item or the thing which can get its inflow (or create income by offering it) and the present estimation of surge (considering every one of the things like support cost). The positive value of the NPV shows that the project or the product can be profitable and the negative value or the reducing value trend between the inflow and outflow means that the project is either totally on loss or it has tendency to go to loss. The basic calculation in the worksheet is based on the above NPV method. Discount rate It is the percentage of rate the central bank or the regulatory bank charges form all the banks which lend money to the loan taker. This charge is regulated by the central bank. The rate of discount in Singapore for taking any loan is 1.17%[7]. In current report also we shall use the data obtained. So, let the discount rate of the calculation shall be used as 1.17% Conclusion By considering all the above data and assumptions to buy Hyundai Elantra using the payment option of one is using the loan from bank and the other is by own funds, it can be concluded that the NPV obtained for the product life cycle is positive in both the cases. In both the cases the NPV obtained is positive, that means buying a car in Singapore is always profitable (cost of diesel, petrol, average running kilometers are not considered for the calculation). But when we compared between the two options by taking loan from bank and the other using own funds, we found that the NPV of using own fund is generating less positive figure than the by taking loan from bank. The NPV for using own fund is 327,258 SGD and the NPV of by taking loan from bank is 404,251 SGD. So, to buy Hyundai Elantra, taking loan from car financing institute is always advisable. References Catapult Ventures Pte. "Get The Best Car Loans Interest Rates for 2017 Now! ." 2017. (accessed September 11, 2017). DOE. "LIFE-CYCLE COST ESTIMATE." 2017. (accessed September 11, 2017). IndexMundi. "Singapore Central bank discount rate." 2016. (accessed September 11, 2017). Jan, Irfanullah. "Net Present Value (NPV)." 2013. (accessed September 11, 2017). sgCarMart. "Hyundai Pricelist From Komoco Motors." 2017. (accessed September 11, 2017). Teh, Joe. "Singapore, use this calculator to check how much your car is worth." TechieLobang. May 22, 2014. (accessed September 11, 2017). ValuePenguin. "Understanding How Car Value Depreciation Works in Singapore." 2017. (accessed September 11, 2017). Woodpecker Asia Tech PTE. "How much does a car really cost in Singapore?" 2017. (accessed September 11, 2017).

Wednesday, March 25, 2020

‘Toads’ and ‘Toads Revisited’ Comparison Essay Essay Example

‘Toads’ and ‘Toads Revisited’ Comparison Essay Paper Frogs and Toads Revisited are poems in Philip Larkin’s aggregation that describes both the fringe benefits and loads of a work life. Larkin’s position of work in ‘Toads’ is seen as a heavy burden whereas in ‘Toads Revisited’ . it is seen as something that keeps him occupied and helps him though life. ‘Toads Revisited’ was written after Larkin became a steadfastly established main bibliothec of the Hull Library and he had no farther to travel because he had already reached the top place. His attitude to work had undergone elusive alterations from eight old ages ago to Toads Revisited. In this verse form. Larkin has managed to get away from the humdrum of his desk. possibly during tiffin or interruption. He takes a walk around the park where he observes and sees more than he expects which triggers memories of the frog that used to crouch on him. Written eight old ages apart. the two verse forms reflect a sense of solitariness combine d with the alteration in Larkin’s attitude towards work and how it helped him subsequently in life instead than impede him. In ‘Toads’ . Larkin opens with a rhetorical inquiry with an image of an unpleasant frog crouching on his life. ‘Squatting’ is an unworldly and an about crude place to be in. Larkin compares the work burden he gets with a ‘toad’ which squats on his life as if to stool on him and ‘waste’ his clip. The usage of a simile in utilizing his ‘wit as a pitchfork’ suggests an thought of jabing to toad to seek and acquire it to travel from his life. We will write a custom essay sample on ‘Toads’ and ‘Toads Revisited’ Comparison Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on ‘Toads’ and ‘Toads Revisited’ Comparison Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on ‘Toads’ and ‘Toads Revisited’ Comparison Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The frog is described as a ‘brute’ who bullies him by giving him tonss of work merely to do his life miserable. The thought of him working six yearss a hebdomad and merely holding one twenty-four hours off for remainder indicates how this was a long clip ago where people worked longer. The sibilance in the first two lines of the 2nd stanza suggests a hushing sound over his life and the craft of the frog. The dash indicates a sudden arrest where he contemplates the fact that he has been poisoned with work by this frog. Juxtaposition is incorporated in the 2nd stanza. Larkin refers to ‘toads’ . ‘pitchforks’ and ‘poison’ which relate to a supernatural presence and are associated with witchery. However. he so goes on to province ‘paying a few bills’ which returns the descriptions back to world. The exclaiming grade illustrates Larkin’s aggravation over how on the job incredibly difficult six yearss a hebdomad is non deserving ‘paying a few bills’ . Larkin describes this as ‘out of proportion’ . Larkin’s drama on the initial rhyme of ‘L’ in the 3rd stanza somehow makes the stanza sound farcical. The usage of lists that Larkin uses suggests how there’s a batch of people in the universe who rely on their common sense to gain a life. He himself writes poesy which is a contrast and he mocks the Hull University ‘lecturers’ . They do non needfully make anything. they merely have to talk and distribute the word to gain money. Peoples who are ‘louts’ and unworldly. uneducated bully neer stop up as ‘paupers’ . They ever tend to hold adequate money to feed themselves and a household without holding a frog crouching over their life. Larkin compares this to his ain life where he doesn’t merely rely on his ‘wits’ to gain a life but still has a ‘toad’ that sits on his caput like a heavy burden of work waiting to be done. The elan at the terminal of ‘lout’ indicates and ongoing list of people who live off their ‘wits’ without really making anything. The repeat of ‘lots of folk’ suggests how there are so many people who don’t have a frog shadowing their life and yet go on to populate. They live up ‘lanes’ which are non glamourous countries. they scavenge and eat the cheapest. long permanent nutrient s available such as ‘tinned sardines’ . The elan indicates the eternal list of their cost decrease techniques which they seem to bask so non mind holding to give so much in their lives. Furthermore. they can non afford to purchase their kids places. their married womans are every bit scraggy as greyhounds. likely from malnutrition but however. no 1 starves. Larkin’s usage of strong vocabulary such as ‘windfalls’ . ‘nippers’ and ‘whippets’ suggests how he is accustomed with the street idiom. The usage of rough linguistic communication suggests the abrasiveness of life on these streets. The word ‘starves’ between two underlines adds accent and that people go hungry but no 1 goes through famishment. Larkin besides does non conceal the thought that his difficult work goes to pensionaries. The thought of shouting ‘stuff your pension! ’ is a instead disrespectful idea towards aged people. enhanced by the exclaiming Markss. However. Larkin uses a quotation mark from Shakespearian literature. ‘the material that dreams are made on’ from the Tempest. Act 4. Scene 1 spoken as portion of Prospero’s ‘resignation speech’ refers to a scenario can merely be fantasised and wished. â€Å"Stuff† refers to the stuffs that go into making an semblance. non to the object of a wish. Regardless of his complains. Larkin understands and knows that something ‘toad-like’ exists in him every bit good and ‘squatsâ₠¬â„¢ within himself. Larkin’s drama on the initial rhyme of ‘h’ suggests the sound of heave and weightiness. The frog in him will neer let him to ‘blag’ his manner through acquiring all the things he wants in life. He is neer traveling to be able to agitate off work because of this frog in him that drives him to go on making everyday undertakings every twenty-four hours. He knows he will be invariably discontent and disgruntled with his life. With one frog sitting on his life and the other sitting inside him. Larkin states that the ‘spiritual’ truth of either truth is embodied by the other and that it is ‘hard to lose either. when you have both. ’ In Larkin’s instance. it was non merely hard to pull off both frogs but it was impossible to go on without them and Larkin would non hold been Larkin without his frogs. ‘Toads’ involves nine four line stanzas with an ABAB half rhyme strategy with an occasional true rime giving the verse form an consequence of limited construction yet uncertainness running through it. ‘Toads Revisited’ besides involves 9 stanzas with 4 lines each and uses half rimes on occasion uses a complete rime. It besides has a different rime strategy in comparing to ‘Toads’ . it is AABB alternatively of ABAB. In ‘Toads Revisited’ . Larkin would believe that being able to walk freely round this park would experience much bet ter than sitting at his desk. ‘The lake. the sunlight. the grass to lie on’ . a power of three is used to heighten the relaxing ambiance that nature brings to Larkin. The alliterative consequence of ‘b’ in ‘Blurred†¦Beyond black-stockinged’ suggests the consequence that barricading noise from the milieus have. He begins to detect life around him and he thinks it is ‘not a bad topographic point to be’ but it still doesn’t ‘suit’ him. Larkin can non conceive of being one of those ‘men’ who are old. ‘hare-eyed clerks’ with unstable occupations. ‘jitters’ who are alkies. drug nuts or war-wounded people. He can non believe of being one of those ‘waxed-fleshed’ people whose lesions are still ‘vague’ and hold merely left infirmary or being a individual in a ‘long coat’ . frequently tramps or tramps who walk around scavenging for nutrient. He believes they are all jumping their portion of the frog crouching on their lives by ‘being stupid or weak’ . In ‘Toads’ . Larkin listed the people who might be non-workers and here. he reflects his aggravation by constructing up a list or the type of people in the park at this clip. Able people should be at work ; they have no ground to be walking about in a park. ‘Think of being them! ’ suggests how Larkin views their life much easier in comparing to his and he tells us to conceive of life as them. However. he contradicts this by saying ‘Hearing the hours chime’ . utilizing initial rhyme of ‘h’ which highlights the ennui and sophistication in th eir lives. It is similar clip merely goes on and on and all the people walking around the park. who are non economically active. delay for the hours to travel by. Small events such as the ‘bread [ being ] delivered’ and the ‘children traveling home’ are used as clip markers which these people use to state what portion of the twenty-four hours it is. Each twenty-four hours as the hours pass. they wait for the following tie marker to get and transport on with a life where they do nil. The Sun being covered by ‘clouds’ produces a soft alliterative consequence combined with vowel rhyme which portrays how slowly clip base on ballss. It passes slow plenty for these people to watch the clouds base on balls the Sun and cover it with clouds. The repeat of ‘Think of being them’ suggests how Larkin really feels commiseration towards these people. A really Larkin sentence is incorporated in the 7th paragraph. ‘turning over their failures’ by a common garden bed of ‘lobelias’ . common flowers. In this stanza. Larkin reflects a intimation of solitariness ; ‘nowhere to travel but indoors’ and ‘no friends but empty chairs’ where apposition is used in a blue. alone mode to stand for the purdah that Larkin may hold been sing. Nonetheless. Larkin truly valued the minutes of his calling which he describes in the 8th stanza. He enjoyed being asked for things and enjoyed the company of his ‘loaf-haire d’ secretary. The dashs between the words ‘shall-I-keep-the-call-in-Sir’ illustrate repeat and is possibly something Larkin heard about every twenty-four hours. Regardless of how annoying it may hold been at the clip. he still prefers to be in the place he presently is in instead than be one of the people in the park. In the last stanza. Larkin references ‘lights come on at four’ which indicates the clip of the twelvemonth when the visible radiation have to be switched on by four in the afternoon. It begins to acquire darker earlier and this possibly symbolises how close decease is going. The thought of Larkin inquiring the frog for his ‘arm’ to tilt on to is like an old friend who is willing to assist him walk down the route. The way he is taking is down to the terminal of ‘Cemetery Road’ and basically. to decease. He understands he requires support and he realises that the frog was non all bad. Although in ‘Toads’ . the frog may hold squatted on his life but now. it was at that place to assist him through his life. Overall. Larkin’s sudden yet elusive alterations of his thoughts of work were chiefly due to these experiences. Both verse forms continue to stand for the frog as something revolting and filthy. However. in ‘Toads Revisited’’ . Larkin begins to gain that a life which involved a batch of difficult work and a frog knee bend over his life was non all bad. Without the frog in himself and the frog crouching on his life. he would hold been like the people in the park. a life style that would non hold suited him.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Violence in a Changing America essays

Violence in a Changing America essays Columbine, Co. Through the news we have witnessed the horror, gore and serious crime that has extended its influence even to the youth of small towns across America. America has experienced a cultural change where solid values no longer serve as a deterrent to crime. This spread may have resulted from the desensitizing media under the, If it bleeds, it reads. marketing ploy, or perhaps the rise of the Internet. However, occurrences such as those at Columbine illustrate the violence that plagues America. Universally, this town represents the insecurity Americans feel under our current gun control policies. We no longer live in the cleaver family 50s when streets and schoolyards were safe, door were left unlocked and windows unbarred. Changing times call for changing policies, enforcing stiffer laws and preventing the distribution of guns to violent criminals. Although, under the Clinton/Gore administration violent crime has decreased by 24 percent, both Bush and Gore recognize that the fight against lawlessness and violence has just begun. Our founding fathers structured the government to have three freedoms: life, liberty, and property. The one which influences the topic at hand is life. The government is responsible to ensure safety; from other countries through a high-powered military, through FDA regulations, through road safety laws and through police enforcement. At this point, the government has created a daunting military reputations, we are ensured healthy food and safe roads; however, most Americans, male or female are afraid to walk alone at night, even in small towns. Some children are afraid to go to school and some teachers fear their own students. With these fears come the failure of one of our founded freedoms: life. Americans recognize the threat of serious crime and the need for change. However, another fundamental founding feature of our nation impedes on the ...

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Launching a new product for P&G in Nigeria Coursework

Launching a new product for P&G in Nigeria - Coursework Example In terms of age, Aussie Shampoo should be segmented for young adults, teenagers, and middle aged people. Aussie shampoo should be segmented for people aged between 15 and 55. 168.1 is the total population of Nigeria. Among them, 105 million people used to consume and utilize shampoo in their daily life. The organization is trying to target people of the young generation and middle aged individuals for newly launched Aussie Shampoo as social demand for these differentiated shampoo products is significantly increased among the target customers. Therefore, the organization is targeting these 105 million potential Nigerian consumers for their newly launched Aussie Shampoo. In terms of the gender segment, the organization should segment both male and female customers as the organization has differentiated its product line according to the characteristics and taste of people of both genders. There are near about 95 million consumers aged between 15 and 55 use shampoos. Among those consumer s, 75 percent are the females and 25 percent are males. Females generally focus on different segments in shampoo such as moisturizer shampoo, silky and real volume etc. On the other hand, 25 percent male consumers in Nigeria generally focus on quantity and quality of products. In terms of the income segment, the organization should segment people of middle class, upper-middle class, and upper-class income segments for Aussie Shampoo due to urbanization and rise of the middle-class income earner.